Malaysia’s External Policies



“Malaysian Conceptions of International Order: Paradoxes of Small-State Pragmatism”, International Affairs (forthcoming).

(with Yew Meng Lai). “Deference and Defiance in Malaysia’s China Policy: Determinants of a Dualistic Diplomacy”, International Journal of Asian Studies (Cambridge University Press).


(w. Abdul Razak Ahmad and Ayman Rashdan Wong) “Malaysia and Northeast Asia: What Drives Small-State Forward Diplomacy”, Issues and Studies, Vol. 58, No. 3 (2022).

(w. Thomas Daniel) “Malaysia’s Relations with the United States and China: Asymmetries (and Anxieties) Amplified”, Southeast Asian Affairs 2022, pp. 211-231.


(with Abdul Razak Ahmad) “Malaysia’s Resilient (but Ambiguous) Partnership with the United States”, Asia Policy, Vol. 16, No. 4 (October), pp. 86-95.

(with Abdul Razak Ahmad and Lai Yew Meng) “PLA Overflight near Malaysian Airspace: A Precarious Provocation”, Fulcrum: Analysis on Southeast Asia, June 30.

“Malaysia’s Fluctuating Engagement with China’s Belt and Road Initiative”, Asian Perspective 45(2): 421-444.

(with Lai Yew Meng and Amy Azuan Abdullah) “Pulau Layang-Layang in Malaysia’s South China Sea Policy”, International Journal of China Studies 12(2): 189-222.

(with Lai Yew Meng) “Structural Sources of Malaysia’s South China Sea Policy”, Australian Journal of International Affairs 75(3).


“Mapping Malaysia in the Evolving Indo-Pacific Construct”, CSCAP Regional Security Outlook 2020 (Canberra: Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific).


“Malaysia between the United States and China: What do Weaker States Hedge Against?” Asian Politics and Policy 8(1): 155-177.


“Malaysia’s Balancing Act”, New York Times (December 7), p. 8.

“Malaysia’s Relations with Major and Middle Powers”, Observatoire Asie du Sud-est (Paris: Asia Centre, Sciences Po).


“Making Sense of Malaysia’s China Policy: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Elite’s Domestic Authority,” Chinese Journal of International Politics 6:429-467.

“Malaysia’s U.S. Policy under Najib: Structural and Domestic Sources of a Small State’s Strategy,” Asian Security 9(3):143-164.


“The Essence of Hedging: Malaysia and Singapore’s Response to a Rising China”, Contemporary Southeast Asia 30(2): 159-185.

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